Greenfield on Educational Administration: Towards a Humane Craft (Educational Management)


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NRCS uses these criteria to allocate funds to state EQIP offices, which in turn have discretion to allocate funds consistent with statutory direction and national priorities. EQIP provides significant economic support to farmers engaged in sustainable management practices, including, among others, cover crop conservation, conservation crop rotation, and prescribed grazing. These practices are critical components of a sustainable approach to farming, as they work to combat erosion, reduce water quality degradation, and improve soil health.

A report notes that some legal analysts believe this provision restricts only the release of specific information about the contract i. Nonetheless, in practice, USDA has been unwilling to release this individualized information, making it difficult to assess the proportion of EQIP funds supporting industrial agricultural practices versus those funds used to support more sustainable systems. The Environmental Working Group EWG has developed a helpful website containing a visual summary of this data from The decrease in acres devoted to prescribed grazing is a concerning trend, and EQIP should prioritize programs that incentivize prescribed grazing techniques, since these methods are critical to sustainable and productive animal agriculture.

These numbers were most likely derived from available practice suite data, by totalling funds dedicated to practices that are primarily CAFO-specific. In its current form, its passage would achieve a substantial shift away from EQIP funding for CAFOs and toward funding for smaller and more sustainable operations. Require key data regarding EQIP funding to be made publicly available. Advocates should therefore push for lawmakers to dispense with the restrictions on USDA that prevent them from releasing detailed information regarding EQIP contracts, and should push USDA, through FOIA and similar mechanisms, to release all such data it is currently able to legally disclose.

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Make improving animal welfare standards a NRCS national priority. Another option is to add to or modify existing EQIP funding priorities. Similarly, the funding priorities could be retooled to explicitly prioritize pasture-based systems over confinement operations. The Conservation Reserve Program CRP is an FSA-administered land conservation program that provides annual payments to agricultural producers for year terms when they agree to remove cropland from production and plant resource-conserving vegetative species.

The objective of the program is to reduce soil erosion, sedimentation in streams and lakes, improve water quality, establish wildlife habitat, and enhance forest and wetland resources. AFOs and CAFOs are eligible to participate in CRP, and may benefit from CRP because it offers an alternative revenue stream for land that may be unsuitable for production due to environmental restrictions stemming from nutrient runoff in nearby waterways or other limitations.

A subprogram of CRP authorized by the Farm Bill, CRP Grasslands, also permits smaller, non-CAFO livestock operations defined as having up to head of cattle, goats, sheep, or the equivalent to enroll up to acres of land while maintaining the area for grazing or haying. In addition, landowners enrolled in CREP may be reimbursed for costs associated with enhancements which prevent animal access to grazing or watering areas to promote conservation, such as livestock exclusion fencing, livestock watering facilities, and livestock crossings, which also double as farmer risk management tools.

Supported conservation measures may include construction or improvement of water management and irritation structures, or the planting of vegetation to control soil erosion. AMA assistance may also help farmers obtain technical assistance to develop value-added processing, or enter into futures, hedging, or options contracts. Eligible land includes pastureland, rangeland, and grasslands on which livestock are produced. Such projects might include the building and maintenance of waste management facilities and storage areas. AMA funds can also be used to help farmers transition to organic practices.

Administered by NRCS, CTA provides technical assistance services, such as resource assessment, practice design, resource monitoring, and post-implementation follow-up to any land owner or manager interested in conserving natural resources on their agricultural land. CTA services help agricultural landowners implement better land management technologies, improve water quality, enhance recreational opportunities, improve land aesthetics, develop and apply sustainable agricultural systems, and facilitate enrollment in other Federal, state, and local conservation programs.

Unlike conservation programs that require participants to retire their land from production,. ACEP allows continued agricultural activity—ALEs and WREs promote conservation by permanently preventing enrolled land from being converted to non-agricultural uses such as for residential or commercial developments.

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Land eligible for ACEP easements includes cropland, rangeland, grassland, pastureland, nonindustrial private forest land, and wetlands. Additionally, conservation easement come with significant tax benefits, including the ability to write off the difference in the value of enrolled land before and after an easement restriction as a charitable tax deductions. CSP is a voluntary program that provides financial and technical assistance to eligible producers to conserve soil, water, air, and related natural resources.


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Eligible lands include cropland, grassland, prairie land, pastureland, rangeland, private forest lands, and other agricultural land, including that used for the production of livestock. CSP financial assistance consists of annual payments made to landowners for installing and adopting new conservation activities, and improving, maintaining, and managing existing activities, and supplemental payments made if a landowner adopts resource-conserving crop rotations.

Such producers may receive payment in exchange for activities such as restricting animal access to streams, ditches, and other waterbodies. The total impact of these federal programs on animal agriculture is difficult to track, since each state sets unique terms for funding projects through both of these programs. Point sources are required to obtain a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System NPDES permit, which outlines the limits on what the source can discharge, includes monitoring and reporting plans, and other such requirements intended to minimize the harm of the pollution.

Nonpoint sources are all other sources of water pollution which are not point sources. Animal agriculture operations that pollute into waterways but do not reach the threshold of a CAFO fall under the category of nonpoint sources. Authorized by CWA Section , EPA gives federal funding to any state that implements a management program for all their nonpoint source pollution, which can include agricultural runoff or other water pollution.

EPA gives this nonspecific federal funding to the states administering such a management program, and then the states themselves can allocate this money to individuals or organizations which actually implement the water management program in the state. Such projects might include using manure spreaders and injectors, building manure containment structures, and operating other waste management systems.

Under the Clean Water State Revolving Fund program CWSRF , EPA gives federal grants to the states to fund low interest loans for clean water infrastructure projects, such as livestock waste management systems, manure spreaders, and irrigation systems. States also contribute additional funds for these loans. States can set their own specific requirements in addition to federal requirements, including customizing loans types for certain communities or projects. These loans must have interest rates at or below market rate, including zero or negative interest rates, and can include additional subsidization such as grants and loan forgiveness.

Currently, there are 28 designated estuaries throughout the U. Every year, the U. Government agencies primarily make commodity purchases through a competitive contract bidding process. Click here for a detailed report regarding total U. A majority of U. Department of Agriculture USDA , which purchases domestic foods to support agricultural markets and to supply its nutrition assistance programs, such as the National School Lunch Program. Unlike providing cash supports, purchasing domestic food products for nutrition assistance programs allows USDA to simultaneously serve its dual goals of supporting American agriculture and providing food assistance.

Namely, these purchases allow USDA to stabilize farm prices by removing surplus products from normal commercial channels while providing food to vulnerable people.

USDA purchases a variety of commodities, including beef, pork, fish, poultry, egg products, fruits, vegetables, grains, nuts, seeds, dairy products, and oils, for its nutrition assistance programs. Entitlement purchases are planned yearly and are determined based on the requirements of the nutrition assistance programs, but also take into account stakeholder input and anticipated surpluses or other market conditions, among other factors. Bonus purchases, on the other hand, are made primarily in response to market surpluses. Numerous laws relating to the nutrition assistance programs, such as the Richard B.

Based on these calculations, annual appropriation acts allocate funds to FNS for its entitlement purchase requirements. Practical implications There is a need to let principals and other administrators transform their individual schools both to transmit necessary skills to survive successfully in the society, and also to educate them in such a way to lead the change in the future. To respond to societal and educational change appropriately, rethinking and redesigning the school systems is necessary.


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  • Three main characteristics of the knowledge society that we currently live in are a borderless world, upward mobility and the potential for quick failure as well as quick success Drucker, Friedman argued that Drucker's "next society" has arrived and the following events and innovations have rapidly and dramatically redistributed economic advantage around the globe, which in a way flattened the world: 1.

    Fall of Berlin Wall 2. Netscape — first mainstream web browser goes public 3. Workflow software — standardized applications, PayPal, eBay, et al. Open-sourcing — Adobe Acrobat Readers, Linux 5. Outsourcing — Y2K, spin-off functions to India 6. Offshoring — China in the World Trade Organization, capital flows to find cheap labor 7. Supply-chaining - Wal-Mart retailer to manufacturers 8. Insourcing — UPS services linked to shipping 9. Inevitably, education systems and educational leadership are affected by the larger system in regard to its functions.

    As Simsek put forward, the demands of rapid social, political and economic changes in the post-industrial knowledge economy require reforms on educational systems around the world. From a Deweyan stance, the desired change process should be the notion that society is constantly changing, and that education reflects, generates, and guides the social change Dewey, On the other hand, Durkheim's rejection of the idea that "education could be the force to transform society and resolve social ills" stands as the contradictory standpoint.

    This is the paradox this paper will be built upon.

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    In scholarly journals around the world, he asserts, educators are after securing concrete research evidence that leadership that is, transformational leadership has a capacity to change schools from inside out. He extensively delved into how this expectation turns around to be a fantasy when the nature of education is investigated with its organic relationship with economy, culture, and politics in a society.

    Concept of Educational Administration

    His final statement is short enough: Schools are dependent variables in their relation with the society; whereby expecting transformational leadership practices to transform schools, and in turn schools to transform the society is a delusion. The main dilemma to be probed into is whether education leads the changes in the society to make it a better one or the societal changes so far have pushed education to transform its systems and leadership to keep up with the new order, needs, and expectations in the society.

    As expressed by Goldberg and Morrison , p. Goodlad defines four broad goals of schooling as academic; vocational - readiness for the world of work and economic responsibilities; social and civic - skills and behavior for participating in a complex democratic society; and personal, based on his examination of a wide range of documents over years of history. This selection obviously creates a cultural message. This is frequently labeled as political or ideological function of schools.

    Greenfield on Educational Administration: Towards a Humane Craft (Educational Management) Greenfield on Educational Administration: Towards a Humane Craft (Educational Management)
    Greenfield on Educational Administration: Towards a Humane Craft (Educational Management) Greenfield on Educational Administration: Towards a Humane Craft (Educational Management)
    Greenfield on Educational Administration: Towards a Humane Craft (Educational Management) Greenfield on Educational Administration: Towards a Humane Craft (Educational Management)
    Greenfield on Educational Administration: Towards a Humane Craft (Educational Management) Greenfield on Educational Administration: Towards a Humane Craft (Educational Management)
    Greenfield on Educational Administration: Towards a Humane Craft (Educational Management) Greenfield on Educational Administration: Towards a Humane Craft (Educational Management)

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