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Figures P and P show a typical sample containing both mature and immature cotton fibers in plane-polarized light. Mature fibers display moderate retardation with birefringence typically in the range of 0.
Unlike synthetic fibers, in which the polymer chains are oriented parallel to the length of the fiber during the manufacturing process, cotton fibers have their cellulose chains oriented in a spiral fashion relative to the long axis. Because of this unusual structure, mature cotton fibers do not go to extinction at any orientation between fully crossed polarizers, although immature fibers will show some reduction in retardation near an extinction position.
This characteristic, combined with its twisted ribbon shape, allows cotton to be distinguished from all other fibers. Cotton fibers between slightly uncrossed polarizers are shown in Figures P and P Figures P , P , P and P show the same sample between fully crossed polarizers, with and without a first order red compensator.
Treatment of cotton fibers with a solution of sodium hydroxide will cause the fibers to swell. This process, called mercerization, is used to increase luster and dyeability. Mercerized cotton fibers will not be as flattened as unmercerized fibers, and will show a much less pronounced though still visible twist. Mercerized cotton fibers also retain their characteristic lack of extinction.
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Figures P , P , P and P show mercerized cotton fibers in plane-polarized light and between fully crossed polarizers. This is particularly true when dealing with short fiber fragments which may occur in lint and airborne dust samples, or with immature cotton fibers. Other natural cellulosic fibers such as linen and ramie will also stain reddish-pink, but can be readily distinguished from cotton by morphological differences.
Colorless undyed cotton fibers are ubiquitous in the environment and do not possess microscopical characteristics that will allow fibers to be associated with a particular source or fibers from different sources to be reliably distinguished from each other. Dyed cotton fibers of different colors can be compared and distinguished microscopically, as well as by various spectroscopic and chromatographic methods. Cotton fibers in varying stages of thermal degradation are often seen as contaminant particles.
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Thermally degraded cotton fibers will range in color from light yellow to yellow-orange, orange-brown, dark brown and black, but will usually retain their distinctive morphological and optical properties unless the degradation is extreme. More heavily degraded fibers will become brittle and will fragment easily upon handling. Although cotton fibers do not fluoresce naturally, the presence of optical brighteners or fluorescent dyes may cause them to glow under ultraviolet light, providing another possible means for comparison.
Immerse the fibers s in a drop of the solution for a few seconds, and then wash several times. Each chapter encompasses definitions, morphology, and fine structure; properties, testing, processing methods, and equipment; and the conversion into marketable products. Taking into account the recent expansion and diversification of markets for various fibers, this book also offers a solid foundation in the principles used for developing new fibers, including biologically and electronically active fibers. It is an ideal volume for scientists, technologists, and engineers working to develop novel and innovative products and technologies using natural and synthetic fibers.
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Handbook of Fiber Chemistry, Third Edition The Handbook of Fiber Chemistry, Third Edition provides complete coverage of scientific and technological principles for all major natural and synthetic fibers. Rental Time perpetual. Lesa meira.
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